WATER TREATMENT MISCALLANEOUS:
Water treatment in general covers a vast array of differing processes. This includes treatment processes of UF / MF; Multimedia and Sediment / Activated Carbon Cartridge Filtration.
Multi Media Filtration:
Multimedia filtration is utilising fine media substances such as sand; glass; turbidex; nexsand; which primarily are used to filter out suspended Solids (SS) from the water down to as low as 10 micron; depending on the media used. Multimedia filters can handle large volumes of water filter out SS.
Sediment Cartridge Filters:
Sediment Filters are primarily used as a final polish to remove in finer detail remaining SS in the water supply. Cartridge filters are rated in microns to signify what level of SS they are able to filter out. The sediment cartridges can filter SS from 20 micron to as low as 1 micron. Specialist cartridge filters can be used to filter even more SS; to as low as 0.2 micron. The filters are usually built with a gradual decrease of filtration efficiency; such as 5 micron; then 1 micron; then 0.4 micron if required.
Granular Activated Carbon Filters (GAC):
These filters specifically target the removal of taste and odour form the water. As the water passes through the activated carbon; taste and odour as organics in the water is absorbed by the carbon. The GAC filters only filter to 5 micron; and should be preceded by a cartridge filter to ensure SS do not block the filters. Since their primary purpose is removal of organics; once the carbon is saturated with organics it requires replacing.
Ultra Filtration and Micro Filtration (UF / MF):
MF filtration and UF filtration are very fine filtration processes; which use PVDF materials to provide fine filtration of the water to 0.1 micron for MF filtration; and to 0.06 micron for UF filtration. The ultimate super fine filtration process; it provides total removal of SS from the water; and at these low micron filtration levels; removes bacteria and some virus pathogens and organisms from the water as well.
All of these water filtration processes AWS utilises on a case by case basis in the design and implementation of water filtration systems.
Other Water Treatment Processes and Systems available are:
Water Softener Systems:
Hardness is primarily caused by the dissolved chemical compounds of calcium and magnesium. The amount of hardness is expressed in mg/L. Water softeners operate on the principle of ion exchange. A synthetic resin bed is charged with sodium ions by regeneration with salt (sodium chloride). Hard water, containing calcium and magnesium ions, flows through the resin. Ion exchange occurs when the calcium and magnesium ions attach themselves to the resin, displacing the sodium ions. The resultant water is softened, being free from calcium and magnesium, but the sodium content is increased.
UV Sterilization utilizes Ultra Violet light of strength in excess of 300j/m2 of UV which when passes through water, damages the DNA of any bacteria, parasites and viruses existing in the water, thereby negating their ability to actively replicate as pathogens and cause illness and gastro problems. This process effectively sterilizes the water. As a non chemical process; it is widely used as an effective non chemical; non consumables process to sterilize the water.
Disinfection of water involves dosing the water chemically to kill bacteria, parasite and viruses present in the water. Use of chemical allows dose rates to be such that residual levels of chemicals dosed provide effective disinfection of the water for extended time periods up to its intended use.
Liquid chlorine or chlorine gas are the common forms of chemical used for disinfection.
Athena Water Services utilizes all these water treatment systems where appropriate in the design and construction of their Water Treatment Systems. All water filtration systems are custom designed and depending on customer requirements are tailored to meet specific requirements as well as meet any regulatory standards.